Chemical Screening of Urine by Reagent Strip

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Author: Leah Coppolino, MPH, MLS(ASCP)
Reviewer: Alexandru Casapu, MBA, MLS(ASCP)CM

This course discusses the chemical tests that are an integral part of a urinalysis. Proper specimen handling and technique are discussed for key tests, including pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood, nitrites, urobilinogen, and leukocyte esterase.

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Continuing Education Credits

  • P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 1.5 hour(s)
  • Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Clinical Chemistry/UA/Toxicology): 1.5 hour(s)

Objectives

  • Define the optimal storage time and temperature for urinalysis samples.
  • Review the proper storage of and procedure for the use of urinalysis reagent strips.
  • Describe the chemical reactions, quality control measures, and interpretation of results for urinalysis reagent strip analytes including pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood, nitrites, urobilinogen, leukocyte esterase.
  • Explain the proper techniques used during urinalysis reagent strip testing; ensuring accuracy.
  • Identify conditions and/or substances that may interfere with urinalysis reagent strip testing.
  • Identify the additional testing protocols used to confirm urinalysis reagent strip testing results.
  • Summarize the analytical principles of measurement in urinalysis reagent strip instruments.

Course Outline

  • Introduction to Urine Chemical Reagent Strips
      • Chemical Urinalysis Reagent Strips
      • Urine Specimen Collection
      • Urine Specimen Transport
      • Reagent Strip Procedure: Manual or Semi-Automated Methods
      • Handling and Storage of Urine Reagent Strips
      • Which of the following statements are true regarding the storage and handling of urine reagent strips? (Choose ALL correct answers)
      • All the following statements about the urine specimen are true EXCEPT:
      • Which of the following statements are true for the reagent strip procedure? (Choose ALL correct answers)
      • Quality control procedures should be performed with each new lot of chemical reagent strips and as often as required by the laboratory's procedure.
  • Urine pH Analysis
      • pH Analysis: The Urine Specimen
      • pH Reaction
      • Urine pH: Acidic and Alkaline
      • A urine specimen was collected at 6:00 AM and remained at room temperature until it was received in the laboratory at 3:30 PM How may the pH of the sp...
      • Match the following factors with the expected urine pH type:
  • Urine Specific Gravity Analysis
      • Measuring Specific Gravity (SG)
      • Advantages and Limitations of the Chemical Reagent Strip Method for Specific Gravity (SG)
      • Clinical Significance of Specific Gravity
      • How does ion concentration in the urine relate to specific gravity?
  • Urine Protein Analysis
      • Protein Error of Indicators
      • Confirmatory Testing for Urine Protein
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Protein
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Protein, continued
      • Follow-up Testing for Positive Urine Protein
      • The presence of increased levels of protein in the urine may be an early indicator of which of the following conditions?
      • Examples of conditions resulting in benign proteinuria include: (Choose ALL correct answers)
  • Urine Glucose Analysis
      • Glucose Reaction
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Urine Glucose Results
      • Clinical Significance of Glucose in the Urine
      • Which of the following conditions produce glycosuria (glucose in the urine)? Choose all that apply.
  • Urine Ketone Analysis
      • Ketones Overview
      • Ketone Reaction
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Ketone Test Results
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Ketones
      • The ketone component that is measured by the nitroprusside reaction is:
      • Which of the following can cause a false-positive result for ketones?
      • Significantly increased levels of ketones are detected in the urine with which of the following conditions? Choose all that apply.
  • Urine Blood Analysis
      • Introduction to Hematuria
      • Blood Reaction
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Results
      • Clinical Significance of Blood in Urine
      • A urine sample is cloudy pink in appearance. The microscopic examination reveals the presence of intact red blood cells (RBCs). What is the term that ...
      • Which of the following substances can cause a false-positive result for blood on the urine reagent strip?
  • Urine Nitrite Analysis
      • Nitrite
      • Nitrite Reaction
      • Nitrite Test Sensitivity
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Results
      • Clinical Significance of Nitrite in Urine
      • Nitrate in urine is reduced to nitrite by:
  • Urine Leukocytes
      • Leukocytes Reaction
      • Leukocytes Reaction, continued
      • False-Positive and Falsely-Decreased Results
      • Clinical Significance of Leukocytes in Urine
      • To screen for urinary tract infection, the leukocytes test result should be evaluated along with the results from which of these other reagent strip t...
  • Urine Bilirubin Analysis
      • Overview of Bilirubin
      • Bilirubin Reaction
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Urine Bilirubin Results
      • Ruling out False-Positive Urine Bilirubin Test Results
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Bilirubin
      • Which of the following may cause a false positive bilirubin result on a urine chemical reagent strip?
      • When a patient has a bile duct obstruction, the bilirubin test portion of the reagent strip is:
      • A positive reagent strip bilirubin test indicates the presence of what form of bilirubin in the urine?
  • Urine Urobilinogen Analysis
      • Introduction to Urobilinogen
      • Urobilinogen Reaction
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Urobilinogen Results
      • Clinical Significance of Urobilinogen in Urine
  • Automation of Chemical Reagent Strip Analysis
      • Semi-Automated Instruments
      • Automated Systems
      • Quality Control
      • Semi-automated and automated urine reagent strip readers offer what advantage over manual methods?
      • Urine chemical reagent strips readers can utilize any manufacturers dipsticks.
      • When an automated or semi-automated method is used to read urine chemical reagent strips, quality control testing must be performed at least how often...
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of instruction: Basic
 
Intended audience: Medical laboratory science and medical laboratory technician students, clinical laboratory personnel, and other medical personnel who perform urine dipstick testing at the point-of-care.  
 
Author information: Leah Coppolino, MPH, MLS(ASCP) is the Director of Sales and Marketing for MediaLab, Inc. Previously, she was the Director of Education and Outreach as well as the Medical Laboratory Science Program Director at St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Leah holds a Masters in Public Health from Thomas Jefferson University.
 
Reviewer Information: Alexandru Casapu, MBA, MLS(ASCP)CM, PBTCM has over 20 years of experience as a medical laboratory scientist, section supervisor, and laboratory manager. He is the former Director of Clinical Laboratory Technology Program at Georgia Piedmont Technical College. He is currently a Program Director at MediaLab, Inc. Alexandru holds BS degrees in Biology and Medical Technology from Clark Atlanta University and a MBA from the University of Georgia.
 

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This course is part of:
2 urine microscopic tubes in blue rack sml
orange lid sterile urine cup with urine 2 sml
timer for urinalysis sml
urine strip almost dipping into urine cup sml
urine strip vertical in front of strip bottle and urine sml
urine strips with controls sml
Correct storage
dye interference